In Summary of Key Findings, this report gives capsule summaries of the major performance items Dynamic Memory Upgrade, Specialty Engine Enhancements, DCSS Above 2 GB, and TCP/IP Ethernet Mode. The reader can refer to the key findings chapter or to the individual enhancements' chapters for more information on these major items.
z/VM 5.4 also contains several additional enhancements meant to help performance. The remainder of this article describes these additional items.
Additional Performance Items
Guest DAT tables: In z/VM 5.4, DAT segment and region tables that map guest address spaces, known collectively as upper DAT tables, can now reside either above or below the 2 GB real bar. This work was done to relieve constraints encountered in looking for real frames to hold such tables. The constraints come from the idea that each of these tables can be several pages long. The System z hardware requires each such table to be placed on contiguous real storage frames. Finding contiguous free frames below the 2 GB bar can be difficult compared to finding contiguous frames anywhere in central storage, especially in some workloads. Though IBM made no specific measurements to quantitate the performance improvements attributable to this enhancement, we feel mentioning the work in this report is appropriate.
CMM-VMRM safety net: VM Resource Manager (VMRM) tracks the z/VM system's storage contention situation and uses the Cooperative Memory Management (CMM) API into Linux as needed, to ask the Linux guests to give up storage when constraints surface. In our VMRM-CMM and CMMA article, we illustrated the throughput improvements certain workloads achieve when VMRM manages storage in this way.
As originally shipped, VMRM had no lower bound beyond which it would refrain from asking Linux guests to give up memory. In some workloads, Linux guests that had already given up all the storage they could give used excessive CPU time trying to find even more storage to give up, leaving little CPU time available for useful work. In z/VM 5.4, VMRM has been changed so that it will not ask a Linux guest to shrink below 64 MB. This was the minimum recommended virtual machine size for SuSE and RedHat at the time the work was done. This VMRM change is in the base of z/VM 5.4 and is orderable for z/VM 5.2 and z/VM 5.3 via APAR VM64439.
In a short epilogue to our VMRM-CMM article, we discuss the effect of the safety net on one workload of continuing interest.
Virtual CPU share redistribution: In z/VM 5.3 and earlier, CPU share setting was always divided equally among all of the nondedicated virtual processors of a guest, even if some of those nondedicated virtual CPUs were in stopped state. In z/VM 5.4, this is changed. As VCPUs start and stop, the Control Program redistributes share, so that stopped VCPUs do not "take their share with them", so to speak. Another way to say this is that a guest's share is now divided equally among all of its nondedicated, nonstopped virtual CPUs. CP Monitor emits records when this happens, so that reduction programs or real-time monitoring programs can learn of the changes.
Linux on System z provides a daemon (cpuplugd) that automatically starts and stops virtual processors based on virtual processor utilization and workload characteristics, thereby exploiting z/VM V5.4 share redistribution. The cpuplugd daemon is available with SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) 10 SP2. IBM is working with its Linux distributor partners to provide this function in other Linux on System z distributions.
Large MDC environments: In z/VM 5.3 and earlier, if MDC is permitted to grow to its maximum of 8 GB, it stops doing MDC inserts. Over time, the cached data can become stale, thereby decreasing MDC effectiveness. z/VM 5.4 repairs this.
Push-through stack: Students of the z/VM Control Program are aware that a primary means for moving work through the system is to enqueue and dequeue work descriptors, called CP Task Execution Blocks (CPEBKs), on VMDBKs. Work of system-wide importance is often accomplished by enqueueing and dequeueing CPEBKs on two special system-owned VMDBKs called SYSTEM and SYSTEMMP.
In studies of z/VM 5.3 and earlier releases, IBM found that in environments requiring intense CPEBK queueing on SYSTEM and SYSTEMMP, the dequeue pass was too complex and was inducing unnecessary CP overhead. In z/VM 5.4 IBM changed the algorithm so as to reduce the overhead needed to select the correct block to dequeue. IBM did make measurements of purpose-built, pathological workloads designed to put large stress on SYSTEM and SYSTEMMP, so as to validate that the new technique held up where the old one failed. We are aware of no customer workloads that approach these pathological loads' characteristics. However, customers who run heavy paging, large multiprocessor configurations might notice some slight reduction in T/V ratio.
Virtual CTC: On z/VM 5.3, VCTC-intensive workloads with buffer transfer sizes greater than 32 KB could experience performance degradation under some conditions. On workloads where we evaluated the fix, we saw throughput improvements of 7% to 9%.
VSWITCH improvements: z/VM now dispatches certain VSWITCH interrupt work on the SYSTEMMP VMDBK rather than on SYSTEM. This helps reduce serialization for heavily-loaded VSWITCHes. Further, the Control Program now suppresses certain VSWITCH load balance computations for underutilized link aggregation port groups. This reduces VSWITCH management overhead for cases where link aggregation calculations need not be performed. Also, z/VM 5.4 increases certain packet queueing limits, to reduce the likelihood of packet loss on heavily loaded VSWITCHes. Finally, CP's error recovery for stalled VSWITCH QDIO queues is now more aggressive and thus more thorough.
Contiguous available list management: In certain storage-constrained workloads, the internal constants that set the low-threshold and high-threshold values for the contiguous-frame available lists were found to be too far apart, causing excessive PGMBK stealing and guest page thrashing. The constants were moved closer together, in accordance with performance improvements seen on certain experimental storage-constrained Linux workloads.