The following items improve performance:
- Storage Management Improvements
- Collaborative Memory Management Assist
- Improved MP Locking
- Diagnose X'9C' Support
- Improved SCSI Disk Performance
- VM Guest LAN QDIO Simulation Improvement
- Virtual Switch Link Aggregation
z/VM 5.3 includes several important enhancements to CP storage management: Page Management Blocks (PGMBKs) can now reside above the real storage 2G line, contiguous frame management has been further improved, and fast available list searching has been implemented. These improvements resulted in improved performance in storage-constrained environments, greatly increased the amount of in-use virtual storage that z/VM can support, and allowed the maximum real storage size supported by z/VM to be increased from 128 GB to 256 GB. See Improved Real Storage Scalability for further discussion and performance results.
Collaborative Memory Management Assist
This new assist allows virtual machines to exploit the new Extract and Set Storage Attributes (ESSA) instruction to exchange information between the z/VM control program and the guest regarding the state and use of guest pages. This function requires z/VM 5.3, the appropriate hardware, and a Linux kernel that contains support for the Collaborative Memory Management Assist (CMMA). A performance evaluation was conducted to assess the relative merits of CMMA and VM Resource Manager Cooperative Memory Management (VMRM-CMM), another method for enhancing memory management of z/VM systems with Linux guests that first became available with z/VM 5.2. Performance improvements were observed when VMRM-CMM, CMMA, or the combination of VMRM-CMM and CMMA were enabled on the system. At lower memory over-commitment ratios, all three algorithms provided similar benefits. For the workload and configuration chosen for this study, CMMA provided the most benefit at higher memory over-commitment ratios. See Memory Management: VMRM-CMM and CMMA for further discussion and performance results.
A new locking protocol has been implemented that reduces contention for the scheduler lock. In many cases where formerly the scheduler lock had to be held in exclusive mode, this is now replaced by holding the scheduler lock in share mode and holding the new Processor Local Dispatch Vector (PLDV) lock (one per processor) in exclusive mode. This reduces the amount of time the scheduler lock must be held exclusive, resulting in more efficient usage of large n-way configurations. See Improved Processor Scalability for further discussion and performance results.
Diagnose X'9C' is a new protocol for guest operating systems to notify CP about spin lock situations. It is similar to diagnose X'44' but allows specification of a target virtual processor. Diagnose X'9C' provided a 2% to 12% throughput improvement over diagnose X'44' for various measured Linux guest configurations having processor contention. No benefit is expected in configurations without processor contention. Diagnose X'9C' support is also available in z/VM 5.2 via PTF UM31642. Linux and z/OS have both been updated to use Diagnose X'9C'. See Diagnose X'9C' Support for further discussion and performance results.
z/VM 5.3 contains several performance improvements for I/O to emulated FBA on SCSI volumes.
- z/VM now exploits the SCSI write-same function of the IBM 2105 and 2107 DASD subsystems, so as to accelerate the CMS FORMAT function for minidisks on SCSI volumes.
- CP modules that support SCSI were tuned to reduce path length for common kinds of I/O requests.
- For CP paging to SCSI volumes, the paging subsystem was changed to bypass FBA emulation and instead call the SCSI modules directly.
These changes resulted in substantial performance improvements for applicable workloads. See SCSI Performance Improvements for further discussion and performance results.
The CPU time required to implement VM Guest LAN QDIO simulation has been reduced. We observed a 4.6% CPU usage decrease for an example workload that uses this connectivity intensively. In addition, the no-contention 64 GB Apache run shown in the Improved Real Storage Scalability discussion has improved performance in z/VM 5.3 due to this improvement.
Link aggregation allows you to combine multiple physical OSA-Express2 ports into a single logical link for increased bandwidth and for nondisruptive failover in the event that a port becomes unavailable. Having the ability to add additional cards can result in increased throughput, particularly when the OSA card is being fully utilized. Measurement results show throughput increases ranging from 6% to 15% for a low-utilization OSA card and throughput increases from 84% to 100% for a high-utilization OSA card, as well as reductions in CPU time ranging from 0% to 22%. See Virtual Switch Link Aggregation for further discussion and performance results.